Osteoporosis is a progressive and metabolic bone disease that decreases bone density and causes deterioration of the bone structure, consequently, osteoporosis increases fracture risk even from minor traumatic events as falling from a standing position.
This concept map about osteoporosis disease will help you relate and link between pathophysiology, definition, epidemiology, classification, risk factors, clinical presentation, treatment, and prevention of osteoporosis.
Normally, there is a balance between two ongoing dynamic processes of bone metabolism; the two processes are bone resorption (daily removal of a small amount of bone minerals) and bone deposition (apposition of new bone). Disturbed bone remodeling balance; with bone resorprtion more than bone deposition causes osteoporosis.
Mechanisms of bone loss may involve:
- Age-related decline in the number and the activity of osteoblasts (cells responsible for bone deposition).
- Decline in local and systemic growth factors.
- Increase in local and cytokines that stimulates bone resorption.
Osteoporosis is classified as:
– Primary osteoporosis
- Type I/postmenopausal osteoporosis.
- Type II/senile osteoporosis
– Secondary osteoporosis
Causes by other conditions as hormonal imbalances, certain diseases, or medications.
Incidence of osteoporosis increases with age and rapid bone loss begins at the time of menopause (about 50 years old). Osteoporosis affects women more than men, with a female-to-male ratio of 4:1. This part of the map is linked to:
- Screening criteria for osteoporosis, and
- Imaging for osteoporosis. It includes a table comparison between noninvasive techniques for measuring bone mineral density.
- Osteoporosis risk factors.
- Prevention of osteoporosis (see the map for details).
Osteoporosis risk factors are represented in a mind map that reveals modifiable and unmodifiable risk factors and diseases and medications that may contribute to developing osteoporosis or cause secondary osteoporosis.
The patient is asymptomatic unless a fracture has occurred. Check out the map for the signs and symptoms of osteoporosis.
Osteoporosis treatment goals include:
- Preserve bone mass
- Prevent fractures
- Decrease pain
- Maintain function
Approaches for achieving these goals are presented in the following figure (part of the map):
Preservation of bone mass and prevention of bone loss in patients diagnosed with osteoporosis could be achieved through:
- Pharmacological treatment
- Risk factors modifications
- Calcium and vitamin D intake
- Physical Activity (strengthening exercises)
Pharmacological treatment of osteoporosis
This map includes a comparison between osteoporosis medications based on mechanism of action, dose, efficacy, indications, side effects, contraindications of each class of the following:
- Estrogen Replacement Therapy (ERT) /Hormonal Replacement Therapy (HRT)
- Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators (SERMs)
Bone Forming Drugs
- Parathyroid hormone (PTH)
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This map is available in two forms;
1. Printable version.
2. Whole map version.
Check them out below to know the difference, so that you can choose what is suitable for you. And please feel free to leave your feedback, comments, or questions in the comments section below.